This article also contributes to our understanding of growth management policy. Much of the research on growth management has focused primarily on the state level and has assumed that municipalities will respond similarly to fiscal stress and growth pressures. We believe there is substantial heterogeneity in how municipalities respond, based on differences in the financial and administrative capacity of local governments, the pressures for growth, and existing infrastructure investments. In the analysis presented here, we analyze growth management efforts separately by municipality type (cities and villages versus towns). We expect cities and villages to have more capacity to manage growth, whereas town governments will face more pressures for growth and have less capacity to manage it.