reference library

/reference library
reference library2018-06-08T14:23:35-07:00

This website features a collection of links to outside resources, many of which were cited in The Captured Economy, for readers interested in learning more about regressive regulation.

To filter the reference library by topic, please use the links on a topic page or open this page on a full-size screen and use the provided menu.

Estimating The Cost Of Delayed Generic Drug Entry To Medicaid

Chintan V. Dave, Michael S. Sinha, Reed F. Beall, and Aaron S. Kesselheim

Health Affairs

June 2020

Delays in market entry of generic drugs are common. This study sought to identify the prevalence of delayed entry, the reasons for the delays, and the delays’ effects on Medicaid…
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Bank Market Power and Monetary Policy Transmission: Evidence from a Structural Estimation

Yifei Wang, Toni M. Whited, Yufeng Wu, and Kairong Xiao

NBER

May 2020

We quantify the impact of bank market power on monetary policy transmission through banks to borrowers. We estimate a dynamic banking model in which monetary policy affects imperfectly competitive banks’…
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Banks as Lenders of First Resort: Evidence from the COVID-19 Crisis

Lei Li, Philip E. Strahan, and Song Zhang

NBER

May 2020

In March of 2020, banks faced the largest increase in liquidity demands ever observed. Firms drew funds on a massive scale from pre-existing credit lines and loan commitments in anticipation…
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Copyright in the Texts of the Law: Historical Perspectives

Charles Duan

Journal of Intellectual Property and Entertainment Law

May 21, 2020

Recently, state governments have begun to claim a copyright interest in their official published codes of law, in particular arguing that ancillary materials such as annotations to the statutory text…
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The Economics of Crowdfunding

Jen-Wen Chang

American Economic Journal

2020

An entrepreneur finances her project via crowdfunding. She chooses a funding mechanism (fixed or flexible), a price, and a funding goal. Under fixed funding, money is refunded if the goal…
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Innovation in the U.S. Government

Joshua R. Bruce and John M. de Figueiredo

NBER

May 2020

This paper examines the U.S. government’s intramural research and development efforts over a 40-year period, drawing together multiple human capital, government spending, and patent datasets. The U.S. Federal Government innovates…
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Patents, Innovation, and Development

Bronwyn H. Hall

NBER

May 2020

I survey some recent research on the role of patents in encouraging innovation and growth in developing economies, beginning with a brief history of international patent systems and facts about…
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Financing Vaccines for Global Health Security

Jonathan T. Vu, Benjamin K. Kaplan, Shomesh Chaudhuri, Monique K. Mansoura, and Andrew W. Lo

NBER

May 2020

Recent outbreaks of infectious pathogens such as Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19 have underscored the need for the dependable availability of vaccines against emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). The cost and risk…
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The Anticompetitive Effects of Common Ownership: The Case of Paragraph IV Generic Entry

Jin Xie and Joseph Gerakos

PAEA Papers and Proceedings

May 2020

Brand-name pharmaceutical companies often file lawsuits against generic drug manufacturers that challenge the monopoly status of patent-protected drugs. Institutional horizontal shareholdings, measured by the generic shareholders’ ownership in the brand-name…
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Internalizing Externalities: Designing Effective Data Policies

Ryan Hill, Carolyn Stein, and Heidi Williams

AEA Papers and Proceedings

May 2020

Many economics journals have recently invested in efforts to archive and curate research data and promote reproducible research. The economics profession has focused relatively less attention on what types of…
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Innovation α: What Do IP-Intensive Stock Price Indexes Tell Us about Innovation?

Carol Corrado, David Martin and Qianfan Wu

AEA Papers and Proceedings

May 2020

Patents and other intellectual property (IP) have grown in relative importance in investments and market capitalizations of public firms (e.g., Corrado and Hulten 2010). This paper illustrates the construction of…
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Expected Profits and The Scientific Novelty of Innovation

David Dranove, Craig Garthwaite, and Manuel I. Hermosilla

NBER

May 2020

Innovation policy involves trading off monopoly output and pricing in the short run in exchange for incentives for firms to develop new products in the future. While existing research demonstrates…
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Truly Standard-Essential Patents? A Semantics-Based Analysis

Lorenz Brachtendorf, Fabian Gaessler, and Dietmar Harhoff

Centre for Economic Policy Research

May 2020

Standard-essential patents (SEPs) have become a key element of technical coordination in standard-setting organizations. Yet, in many cases, it remains unclear whether a declared SEP is truly standard-essential. To date,…
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Tax Credits and Small Firm R&D Spending

Ajay Agrawal, Carlos Rosell, and Timothy Simcoe

American Economic Journal: Economic Policy

April 2020

In 2004, Canada changed the eligibility rules for its Scientific Research and Experimental Development (SRED) tax credit, which provides tax incentives for R&D conducted by small private firms. Difference-in-difference estimates…
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Advance Market Commitments: Insights from Theory and Experience

Michael Kremer, Jonathan D. Levin, and Christopher M. Snyder

NBER

February 2020

Ten years ago, donors committed $1.5 billion to a pilot Advance Market Commitment (AMC) to help purchase pneumococcal vaccine for low-income countries. The AMC aimed to encourage the development of…
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Scientific Grant Funding

Pierre Azoulay and Danielle Li

NBER

March 2020

This chapter provides an overview of grant funding as an innovation policy tool aimed at both practitioners and science policy scholars. We first discuss how grants relate to other contractual…
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Copyright and Creativity: Evidence from Italian Opera During the Napoleonic Age

Michela Giorcelli and Petra Moser

NBER

March 2020

This paper exploits exogenous variation in the adoption of copyrights – as a result of the timing of Napoléon’s military victories in Italy – to examine the effects of copyrights…
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The Risk of Caution: Evidence from an R&D Experiment

Richard Carson, Joshua S. Graff Zivin, Jordan Louviere, Sally Sadoff, and Jeffrey G. Shrader Jr

NBER

March 2020

Innovation is important for firm performance and broader economic growth. But breakthrough innovations necessarily require greater risk-taking than more incremental approaches. To understand how managers respond to uncertainty when making…
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How Much Can Pharma Lose?

Sean Dickson and Jeromie Ballreich

Westhealth Policy Center

December 2019

Whenever policymakers consider approaches to reduce drug spending, the pharmaceutical industry sings a familiar refrain— any reduction in drug manufacturer revenues will cause investment to wither, depriving manufacturers of the…
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Blind Spot: How the COVID-19 Outbreak Shows the Limits of Pharma’s Monopoly Model

Zain Rizvi

Public Citizen

February 19, 2020

As yet another coronavirus spreads around the globe, scientists are once again trying to develop new treatments and vaccines. Much remains unknown about this family of viruses. But we know…
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Profitability of Large Pharmaceutical Companies Compared With Other Large Public Companies

Fred D. Ledley, Sarah Shonka McCoy, and Gregory Vaughan

JAMA

March 3, 2020

Understanding the profitability of pharmaceutical companies is essential to formulating evidence-based policies to reduce drug costs while maintaining the industry’s ability to innovate and provide essential medicines. This cross-sectional study…
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Estimated Research and Development Investment Needed to Bring a New Medicine to Market, 2009-2018

Olivier J. Wouters, PhD1; Martin McKee, MD, DSc2; Jeroen Luyten, PhD

JAMA

March 3, 2020

The mean cost of developing a new drug has been the subject of debate, with recent estimates ranging from $314 million to $2.8 billion. Data were analyzed on new therapeutic…
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Approaching intellectual property scholarship differently: A qualitative research review and agenda

Shobita Parthasarathy

Science and Public Policy

February 27, 2020

Social and policy interest in intellectual property, and patents, in particular, is growing. This is reflected in the rise of scholarly inquiry on the topic beyond the legal community, including…
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The Effects of Prize Structures on Innovative Performance

Joshua Graff Zivin and Elizabeth Lyons

NBER

February 2020

Successful innovation is essential for the survival and growth of organizations but how best to incentivize innovation is poorly understood. We compare how two common incentive schemes affect innovative performance…
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Product Innovation, Product Diversification, and Firm Growth: Evidence from Japan’s Early Industrialization

Serguey Braguinsky, Atsushi Ohyama, Tetsuji Okazaki, and Chad Syverson

NBER

February 2020

We explore how firms grow by adding products. In contrast to most earlier work on the topic, our conceptual and empirical framework allows for separate treatment of product innovation (vertical…
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Copyright and the Progress of Science: Why Text and Data Mining Is Lawful

Michael W. Carroll

UC Davis Law Review

2019

This Article argues that U.S. copyright law provides a competitive advantage in the global race for innovation policy because it permits researchers to conduct computational analysis — text and data…
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Demand Shocks, Procurement Policies, and the Nature of Medical Innovation: Evidence from Wartime Prosthetic Device Patents

Jeffrey Clemens, Parker Rogers

NBER

January 2020

We analyze wartime prosthetic device patents to investigate how procurement policy affects the cost, quality, and quantity of medical innovation. Analyzing whether inventions emphasize cost and/or quality requires generating new…
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Medicines and Intellectual Property: 10 Years of the WHO Global Strategy

Germán Velásquez

South Centre

December 2019

The negotiations of the Intergovernmental Working Group on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property (IGWG) (2006-2008), undertaken by the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO), were the result…
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Lack Of Access To Specialists Associated With Mortality And Preventable Hospitalizations Of Rural Medicare Beneficiaries

Kenton J. Johnston, Hefei Wen, and Karen E. Joynt Maddox

Health Affairs

December 2019

People living in rural areas have worse health outcomes than their urban counterparts do. Understanding what factors account for this could inform policy interventions for reducing rural-urban disparities in health….
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Producer prices in the legal services industry after the Great Recession

Joseph Valentine

Monthly Labor Review

November 2019

Following the 2008 financial crisis (which occurred during the Great Recession that began in December 2007), businesses and corporations experienced substantial difficulty in accessing credit required to maintain operations at…
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Waste in the US Health Care System: Estimated Costs and Potential for Savings

William H. Shrank, Teresa L. Rogstad, and Natasha Parekh

Journal of the American Medical Association

October 7, 2019

The United States spends more on health care than any other country, with costs approaching 18% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Prior studies estimated that approximately 30% of health…
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Policy uncertainty and the maturity structure of corporate debt

Sudip Datta, Trang Doan, and Mai Iskandar-Datta/p>

Journal of Financial Stability

October 2019

This study examines the effect of policy uncertainty on corporate debt maturity structure. We find that elevated levels of policy uncertainty lead firms to shorten debt maturity, indicating that firms…
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Does machine learning help us predict banking crises?

Johannes Beutel, Sophia List, and Gregorvon Schweinitz

Journal of Financial Stability

December 2019

This paper compares the out-of-sample predictive performance of different early warning models for systemic banking crises using a sample of advanced economies covering the past 45 years. We compare a…
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Is the CRA Still Relevant to Mortgage Lending?

Paul Calem, Lauren Lambie-Hanson, and Susan Watcher

Penn Institute for Urban Regulation

September 2019

Market share of conforming-size, home purchase mortgage originations has steadily and substantially shifted from banking institutions to nonbank lenders over recent years. In 2017, nonbanks originated more than 1.8 million…
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Economic Perspectives on FRAND

Roya Ghafele

2019

The economic valuation of intellectual property is an area with which IP professionals still need to fully come to grips with. In the context of Standard Essential Patents (SEPs), the…
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Housing America’s Older Adults 2019

Policy Advisory Board of the Joint Center for Housing Studies

Joint Center for Housing Studies at Harvard University

2019

Within the 65-and-over age group, most recent income gains have gone to the highest earners, and the number of households with housing cost burdens has reached an all-time high. Ensuring…
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Do financial crises cleanse the banking industry? Evidence from US commercial bank exits

Laima Spokeviciute, KevinKeasey, and Francesco Vallascas

Journal of Banking and Finance

February 2019

We examine the cleansing effect of financial crises via their contribution to the exit of inefficient US commercial banks from 1984 to 2013. We find a larger increase in the…
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Mortgage Finance in the Face of Rising Climate Risk

Amine Ouazad and Matthew E. Kahn

NBER

September 2019

Recent evidence suggests an increasing risk of natural disasters of the magnitude of hurricane Katrina and Sandy. Concurrently, the number and volume of flood insurance policies has been declining since…
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Competition and Strategic Incentives in the Market for Credit Ratings: Empirics of the Financial Crisis of 2007

Chenghuan Sean Chu and Marc Rysman

American Economic Review

2019

We study the market for ratings agencies in the commercial mortgage backed securities sector leading up to and including the financial crisis of 2007–2008. Using a structural model adapted from…
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Inclusionary Zoning and Housing Market Outcomes

Emily Hamilton

Mercatus Center

September 2019

As regions across the United States are experiencing high and rising house prices, inclusionary zoning is increasing in popularity as a tool to increase the availability of affordable housing for…
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Making Sense of the Barro-Ricardo Equivalence in a Financialized World

Lorenzo Esposito and Giuseppe Mastromatteo

Levy Economics Institute

July 2019

The 2008 crisis created a need to rethink many aspects of economic theory, including the role of public intervention in the economy. On this issue, we explore the Barro-Ricardo equivalence,…
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The Monetary Basis of Bank Supervision

Lev Menand

SSRN

July 17, 2019

A series of statutory provisions codified at Title 12 of the U.S. Code empower special government officials known as supervisors to examine banks and tell bankers what to do, not…
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The Value of Intermediation in the Stock Market

Marco Di Maggio, Mark L. Egan, and Francesco Franzoni

NBER

August 2019

Brokers continue to play a critical role in intermediating institutional stock market transactions. More than half of all institutional investor order flow is still executed by high-touch (non-electronic) brokers. Despite…
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Jumbo rates are below conforming rates: When did this happen and why?

Stephen D. Oliner, Lynn M. Fisher, Tobias Peter, and Mike Fratantoni

American Enterprise Institute

August 6, 2019

Pre-crisis estimates of the jumbo-conforming spread, utilizing a variety of methodologies, ranged from 10 to 25 basis points. In the post-crisis period, this spread has decreased and has been negative…
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Is the Supreme Court’s Patentable Subject Matter Test Overly Ambiguous? An Empirical Test

Jason Reinecke

SSRN

July 2, 2019

In four cases handed down between 2010 and 2014, the Supreme Court articulated a new two-step patent eligibility test that drastically reduced the scope of patent protection for software inventions….
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Prophetic Patents

Janet Freilich

SSRN

June 25, 2018

In most contexts, making up data is forbidden – considered fraudulent, even immoral. Not so in patents. Patents often contain experimental data, and it is perfectly acceptable for these experiments…
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Copyright and Creativity: Evidence from Italian Operas

Michela Giorcelli and Petra Moser

SSRN

May 19, 2019

This paper exploits variation in the adoption of copyright laws – due to idiosyncratic variation in the timing of Napoléon’s military victories – to investigate the causal effects of copyright…
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Corporate bond clawbacks as contingent capital for banks

Fernando Díaz, Gabriel G. Ramirez, and Luiling Liu

Journal of Financial Stability

August 2018

We propose a contingent clawback bond (COCLA) as an alternative source of contingent convertible capital (CoCo). We develop a utility maximization model in which a bank manager faces the following…
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Macroprudential Policy: What We’ve Learned, Don’t Know, and Need to Do

Kristin J. Forbes

AEA Papers and Proceedings

May 2019

Over the last decade, macroprudential policy has made important advances and become more widely used. We have a better understanding of its goals and tools, and are accumulating evidence that…
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The Paradoxes of Patenting: Invention and Its Diffusion in 18th- and 19th-Century Britain, France, and North America

Christine MacLeod

Technology and Culture

October 1991

This article deals with a period of transition for most patent systems in Europe and North America, from instruments of royal prerogative power to specialized and statute-based weapons of capitalist…
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Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development

Richard C. Levin, Alvin K. Klevorick, Richard R. Nelson, Sidney G. Winter

Brookings Papers on Economic Activity

1987

This paper describes the results of an inquiry into appropriability conditions in more than one hundred manufacturing industries. We discuss how this information has been and might be used to…
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The Changing Structure of American Innovation: Some Cautionary Remarks for Economic Growth

Ashish Arora, Sharon Belenzon, Andrea Patacconi, and Jungkyu Suh

NBER

May 2019

A defining feature of modern economic growth is the systematic application of science to advance technology. However, despite sustained progress in scientific knowledge, recent productivity growth in the U.S. has…
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The Spatial Mismatch Between Innovation and Joblessness

Edward L. Glaeser and Naomi Hausman

NBER

May 2019

American technological creativity is geographically concentrated in areas that are generally distant from the country’s most persistent pockets of joblessness. Could a more even spatial distribution of innovation reduce American…
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Trends in Prices of Popular Brand-Name Prescription Drugs in the United States

Nathan E. Wineinger, Yunyue Zhang, and Eric J. Topol

JAMA Network

May 31, 2019

High and continually increasing pharmaceutical drug spending is a major health and health policy concern in the United States.This economic evaluation of drug prices focuses on 49 top-selling brand-name medications…
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Is inclusionary Zoning inclusionary? A Guide for Practitioners

Heather L. Schwartz, Liisa Ecola, Kristin J. Leuschner, and Aaron Kofner

RAND Corporation

2012

Inclusionary zoning (IZ) has become an increasingly popular tool for providing affordable housing in an economically integrative manner. IZ policies typically require developers to set aside a proportion of units…
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Silver Bullet or Trojan Horse? The Effects of Inclusionary Zoning on Local Housing Markets

Jenny Schuetz, Rachel Meltzer, and Vicki Been

NYU Law School

June 9, 2008

Many local governments are adopting inclusionary zoning (IZ) as a means of producing affordable housing without direct public subsidies. In this paper, we use panel data on IZ in the…
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Gentrification, Property Tax Limitation, and Displacement

Isaac William Martin Kevin Beck

Urban Affairs Review

September 2, 2016

Scholars have long argued that gentrification may displace long-term homeowners by causing their property taxes to increase, and policy makers, including the U.S. Supreme Court, have cited this argument as…
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Housing, urban growth and inequalities: The limits to deregulation and upzoning in reducing economic and spatial inequality

Andrés Rodríguez-Pose and Michael Storper

Human Geography and Planning

May 2019

Urban economics and branches of mainstream economics – what we call the “housing as opportunity” school of thought – have been arguing that shortages of affordable housing in dense agglomerations…
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Gene Patents and Licensing Practices and Their Impact on Patient Access to Genetic Tests

Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society

Department of Health and Human Services

April 2010

In keeping with our mandate to provide advice on the broad range of policy issues raised by the development and use of genetic technologies as well as our charge to…
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The Uneasy Case for Software Copyrights Revisited

Pamela Samuelson

The George Washington Law Review

September 2011

Forty years ago, Justice Stephen Breyer expressed serious doubts about the economic soundness of extending copyright protection to computer programs in his seminal article, The Uneasy Case for Copyright. A…
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The Effect of House Prices on Household Borrowing: A New Approach

James Cloyne, Kilian Huber, Ethan Ilzetzki and Henrik Kleven

American Economic Review

May 2019

We investigate the effect of house prices on household borrowing using administrative mortgage data from the United Kingdom and a new empirical approach. The data contain household-level information on house…
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A Macroeconomic Model of Price Swings in the Housing Market

Carlos Garriga, Rodolfo Manuelli, and Adrian Peralta-Alva

American Economic Review

May 2019

This paper shows that a macro model with segmented financial markets can generate sizable movements in housing prices in response to changes in credit conditions. We establish theoretically that reductions…
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Interbank Connections, Contagion and Bank Distress in the Great Depression

Charles W. Calomiris, Matthew S. Jaremski, and David C. Wheelock

NBER

May 2019

Liquidity shocks transmitted through interbank connections contributed to bank distress during the Great Depression. New data on interbank connections reveal that banks were much more likely to close when their…
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Aiming for the Goal: Contribution Dynamics of Crowdfunding

Joyee Deb, Aniko Oery, and Kevin R. Williams

NBER

May 2019

We study reward-based crowdfunding campaigns, a new class of dynamic contribution games where consumption is exclusive. Two types of backers participate: buyers want to consume the product while donors just…
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Does Gentrification Displace Poor Children? New Evidence from New York City Medicaid Data

Kacie Dragan, Ingrid Ellen, and Sherry A. Glied

NBER

May 2019

The pace of gentrification has accelerated in cities across the country since 2000, and many observers fear it is displacing low-income populations from their homes and communities. We offer new…
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Why Are the Prices So Damn High?

Eric Helland and Alexander Tabarrok

Mercatus Center

May 22, 2019

Why are prices in some sectors increasing dramatically even as economy-wide technology and productivity improves? Education and healthcare are notable examples of sectors seemingly stricken by constantly rising prices. Educational…
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Communication within Banking Organizations and Small Business Lending

Ross Levine, Chen Lin, Qilin Peng, and Wensi Xie

NBER

May 2019

We investigate how communication within banks affects small business lending. Using travel time between a bank’s headquarters and its branches to proxy for the costs of communicating soft information, we…
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How Do Mortgage Refinances Affect Debt, Default, and Spending? Evidence from HARP

Joshua Abel and Andreas Fuster

Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University

May 15, 2019

This paper seeks to refine our understanding of how refinancing a mortgage affects household outcomes. This issue has attracted particular attention in the wake of the Great Recession, however, there…
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Intellectual Property Law and the Right to Repair

Leah Chan Grinvald and Ofer Tur-Sinai

Fordham Law Review

May 2019

In recent years, there has been a growing push towards state legislation that would provide consumers with a “right to repair” their products. Currently 18 states have pending legislation that…
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Who Pays for Rent Control? Heterogeneous Landlord Response to San Francisco’s Rent Control Expansion

Rebecca Diamond, Tim McQuade and Franklin Qian

AEA Papers and Proceedings

May 2019

Using a 1994 law change, we exploit quasi-experimental variation in the assignment of rent control in San Francisco to study which types of landlords bear the burden of decreased rental…
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Ending Rent Control Reduced Crime in Cambridge

David H. Autor, Christopher J. Palmer and Parag A. Pathak

AEA Papers and Proceedings

May 2019

Using detailed location-specific criminal incident-level data, we find that sudden rent decontrol in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1995 caused overall crime to fall by 16 percent—approximately 1,200 crimes annually. We estimate…
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The Effects of Second-Generation Rent Control on Land Values

Andreas Mense, Claus Michelsen and Konstantin A. Kholodilin

AEA Papers and Proceedings

May 2019

Second generation rent control seeks to prevent negative quantity effects by exempting newly built units. The artificially lowered rent in the controlled segment makes renting attractive for households that would…
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Spatial Misallocation and Rent Controls

Guillaume Chapelle, Etienne Wasmer and Pierre-Henri Bono

AEA Papers and Proceedings

May 2019

In many global cities the rental housing market is partially regulated. We document that the Paris housing market is dual: a flexible rent sector coexists with a large controlled rent…
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Housing Supply Dynamics under Rent Control: What Can Evictions Tell Us?

Brian J. Asquith

AEA Papers and Proceedings

May 2019

Measuring how rent-controlled landlords change their housing supply in response to rent increases is difficult, because new construction is automatically exempt. This paper explores evictions as a barometer for landlords’…
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Time to buy or just buying time? Lessons from October 2008 for the cross-border bailout of banks

Author name here

Publication name here

Publication date here

This paper studies the country-level reaction of bank credit default swap (“CDS”) spreads and stock prices to bailout announcements in the US and five European countries in October 2008. Bailouts…
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Banking crises and crisis dating: Disentangling shocks and policy responses

John H. Boyd, Gianni De Nicolò, and Tatiana Rodionova

Journal of Financial Stability

April 2019

We construct theory-based measures of systemic bank shocks. These measures complement banking crisis indicators employed in many empirical studies, which we show capture (lagged) policy responses to systemic bank shocks….
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Measuring contagion risk in international banking

S. Avdjiev, P. Giudici, and A. Spelta

Journal of Financial Stability

May 17th 2019

We propose a distress measure for national banking systems that incorporates not only banks’ CDS spreads, but also how they interact with the rest of the global financial system via…
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Affordable Housing and City Welfare

Jack Y Favilukis, Pierre Mabille, and Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh

Columbia Business School

April 10, 2019

Housing affordability has become the main policy challenge for most large cities in the world. Zoning, rent control, housing vouchers, and tax credits are the main levers employed by policy…
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The rise and effects of homeowners associations

Wyatt Clarke and Matthew Freedman

Journal of Urban Economics

July 2019

In the U.S., nearly 60% of recently built single-family houses, and 80% of houses in new subdivisions, are part of a homeowners association (HOA). We construct the first near-national map…
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May 2019 Financial Stability Report

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve

May 2019

This report presents the Federal Reserve Board’s current assessment of the resilience of the U.S. financial system. By publishing this report, the Board intends to promote public under- standing and…
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What Insights Do Taxi Rides Offer into Federal Reserve Leakage?

David Andrew Finer

Chicago Stigler Center

March 2018

In this paper, I employ anonymous New York City yellow taxi records to infer variation in interactions between insiders of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (New York Fed)…
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Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age: 2017 – Chapters 1 and 2

Peter S. Menell, Mark A. Lemley, Robert P. Merges

UC Berkley Law School

2017

“The 2017 Edition reflects the following principal developments: Trade Secrets: Congress passed the Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016, one of the most momentous changes in the history of trade…
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The Patent Troll: Benign Middleman or Stick-Up Artist?

David S. Abrams, Ufuk Akcigit, Gokhan Oz, and Jeremy G. Pearce

NBER

March 2019

How do non-practicing entities (“Patent Trolls”) impact innovation and technological progress? Although this question has important implications for industrial policy, little direct evidence about it exists. This paper provides new…
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Relaxing Occupational Licensing Requirements: Analyzing Wages and Prices for a Medical Service

Morris M. Kleiner, Allison Marier, Kyoung Won Park, and Coady Wing

The Journal of Law and Economics

February 2014

Occupational licensing laws have been relaxed in a large number of U.S. states to give nurse practitioners the ability to perform more tasks without the supervision of medical doctors. We…
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PA Scope of Practice Laws

Barton Associates

Barton Associates

All PAs must practice with a collaborating physician; however, state laws dictate the extent of that relationship. This interactive guide provides an overview of PA scope of practice laws by…
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Health spending in OECD countries: obtaining value per dollar.

Gerard F. Anderson and Biance K. Frogner

Health Affairs

2018

In 2005 the United States spent $6,401 per capita on health care-more than double the per capita spending in the median Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. Between…
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Advanced Practice Registered Nurses

Department of Veteran Affairs

Department of Veteran Affairs

2015

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its medical regulations to permit full practice authority of three roles of VA advanced practice registered nurses (APRN) when they are acting…
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Reforming Health Care Workforce Regulation

Taskforce on Health Care Workforce Regulation

Pew Health Professions Commission

December 1995

” Pew Health Professions Commission endorses the need to reform the regulatory system, the general vision articulated by the Taskforce on the future of the system, and the invitation to…
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Assessing Scope of Practice in Health Care Delivery: Critical Questions in Assuring Public Access and Safety

Federation of State Medical Boards

Federation of State Medical Boards

2005

“The Federation of State Medical Boards (the Federation) is a national non-profit association whose membership includes all medical licensing and disciplinary boards in the United States, and the U.S. territories….
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Basel III Monitoring Report

Basel Committee

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision

March 20, 2019

“This report presents the results of the Basel Committee’s latest Basel III monitoring exercise, based on data as of 30 June 2018. Through a rigorous reporting process, the Committee regularly…
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Should Law Subsidize Driving?

Gregory H. Shill

SSRN

March 1, 2019

A century ago, captains of industry and their allies in government launched a social experiment in urban America: the abandonment of mass transit in favor of a new personal technology,…
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Complexity in Large U.S. Banks

Linda Goldberg and April Meehl

Federal Reserve Bank of New York

February 2019

While both size and complexity are important for the largest U.S. bank holding companies (BHCs), specific types of complexity and their patterns across banks are not well understood. We introduce…
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Amenities, Risk, and Flood Insurance Reform

V. Kerry Smith and Ben Whitmore

NBER

February 2019

This paper provides the first, comprehensive evidence on the question of whether the subsidized flood insurance rates are needed to meet the affordability goal of the National Flood Insurance Program….
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Recovery Dynamics: An Explanation from Bank Screening and Entrepreneur Entry

Yunzhi Hu

University of Maryland

January 3, 2017

Economic recoveries can be slow, fast, or involve double dips. This paper provides an explanation based on the dynamic interactions between bank lending standards and firm entry selection. In the…
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The Big Con – Reassessing the “Great” Recession and its “Fix”

Laurence J. Kotlikoff

NBER

November 2018

Most economists differ, not on the causes of the Great Recession, but on their relative importance. They concur, though, on the basic problem, namely human, not market failure. This study…
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Creativity Under Fire: The Effects of Competition on Creative Production

Daniel P. Gross

NBER

September 2018

Though fundamental to innovation and essential to many industries and occupations, individual creativity has received limited attention as an economic behavior and has historically proven difficult to study. This paper…
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Who Participates in Local Government? Evidence from Meeting Minutes

Katherine Levine Einstein, Maxwell Palmer, and David Glick

Perspectives on Politics

June 29, 2018

Scholars and policymakers have identified neighborhood activism and participation as a valuable source of policy information and civic engagement. Yet, these venues may be biasing policy discussions in favor of…
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When Regulations Block Access to Oral Health Care, Children at Risk Suffer

Jane Koppelman

Pew Charitable Trusts

August 20, 2018

This brief describes a range of state-based regulations or policies that either limit or prohibit dental hygienists from sealing children’s teeth at school, or create financial burdens that work against…
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How Medical Licensing Drives Up Health Care Prices

Brink Lindsey and Steven Teles

Pro-Market

November 8, 2017

The role of licensing in driving up healthcare costs has been almost completely ignored. The apparent explanation is that nobody can imagine that there is any alternative. The obvious complexity…
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Intellectual Property Laws: Wolves in Sheep’s Clothing

Brink Lindsey and Steven Teles

Pro-Market

September 15, 2017

In the rogues’ gallery of regulatory rent-seeking, copyright and patent laws are the wolves in sheep’s clothing. According to the ingenious and highly effective rhetoric of their beneficiaries and supporters,…
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