1. Licensing is associated with 18 percent higher wages.
Morris M. Kleiner and Alan B. Krueger, “Analyzing the Extent and Influence of Occupational Licensing on the Labor Market,” Institute for the Study of Labor, February 2011.
2. Proposals for licensing reform.
Morris M. Kleiner, “Reforming Occupational Licensing Policies,” The Hamilton Project, January 2015.
3. How state licensing discourages out-of-state moves.
Janna E. Johnson and Morris M. Kleiner, “Is Occupational Licensing a Barrier to Interstate Migration?” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, December 2017.
4. Overview of trends in and effects of occupational licensing.
Ryan Nunn, “Occupational Licensing and American Workers,” The Hamilton Project, June 2016.
5. In-depth nationwide study of the burdens of licensing in low-wage occupations.
Dick M. Carpenter II, Lisa Knepper, Kyle Sweetland, and Jennifer McDonald, “License to Work: A National Study of Burdens from Occupational Licensing,” Institute for Justice, November 2017.
6. Analysis of problems with occupational licensing and need for reform by the Obama administration.
“Occupational Licensing: A Framework for Policymakers,” The White House, July 2015.
7. The case for licensing doctors is surprisingly weak.
Shirley V. Svorny, “Beyond Medical Licensure,” Regulation, Spring 2015.
8. How medical licensing can actually reduce physician quality.
Adriana D. Kugler and Robert M. Sauer, “Doctors without Borders? Relicensing Requirements and Negative Selection in the Market for Physicians,” Journal of Labor Economics, 2005.
9. How licensing blocks employment for people with criminal records.
Beth Avery, “A Mistake that Lasts a Lifetime,” Democracy, October 7, 2016.
10. Prospects for reform.
C. Jarrett Dieterle and Shoshana Weissman, “The Licensing Logjam,” National Affairs, Spring 2018.