Local Land Use Regulation and the Chain of Exclusion
The study reported in this article tested connections between five land use controls and the racial composition of the communities that use them. A survey of localities in the 25 largest U.S. metropolitan areas showed that low-density-only zoning, which restricts residential densities to fewer than eight dwelling units per acre, consistently reduced rental housing; this, in turn, limited the number of Black and Hispanic residents. Building permit caps were also associated with lowered proportions of Hispanic residents. Other controls tested—urban growth boundaries, adequate public facilities ordinances, and moratoria—had limited effects on either housing types or racial distribution.