Among our conclusions: It is possible to use zoning and housing trend data to gain insights into the effects of zoning on high density, multifamily housing development. In some jurisdictions, zoning clearly appears to impede the development of high-density multifamily housing. No single indicator provides unambiguous evidence of regulatory barriers. Indicators of zoning and housing trends are often best expressed as ratios. High-density residential development is not always affordable, and low density development is not always costly. Ample high-density and multifamily zoning is neither necessary nor sufficient to produce affordable housing. Regional collection and generalization of zoning data facilitates analysis of regulatory barriers. Oversight of local zoning by a regional agency appears to mitigate regulatory barriers.
Journal of the American Planning Association