reference library

/reference library
reference library2018-06-08T14:23:35-07:00

This website features a collection of links to outside resources, many of which were cited in The Captured Economy, for readers interested in learning more about regressive regulation.

To filter the reference library by topic, please use the links on a topic page or open this page on a full-size screen and use the provided menu.

Occupational Licensing and Labor Market Fluidity

Morris M. Kleiner and Ming Xu


July 2020

We show that occupational licensing has significant negative effects on labor market fluidity defined as cross-occupation mobility. Using a balanced panel of workers constructed from the CPS and SIPP data,…
Read more

An Inclusive Post-COVID Recovery

Michael D. Tanner

Cato Institute

September 15 2020

Whatever one’s opinion of the federal and state government response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the virus and associated “shelter at home” orders clearly had a devastating impact on the U.S….
Read more

Options to Enhance Occupational License Portability

Economic Liberty Task Force

Federal Trade Commission

September 2018

Nearly 30 percent of American jobs require a license today, up from less than five percent in the 1950s. For some professions, occupational licensing is necessary to protect the public…
Read more

The Economic Burden and Practice Restrictions Associated With Collaborative Practice Agreements: A National Survey of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses

Brendan Martin and Maryann Alexander

Journal of Nursing Regulation

January 2019

The U.S. healthcare system is facing workforce shortages in rural and primary care settings. Despite growing demand for providers and comparable quality metrics, advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) still face…
Read more

Reforming America’s Healthcare System Through Choice and Competition

Department of Health and Human Services

December 2018

Reduced competition among clinicians leads to higher prices for health care services, reduces choice, and negatively impacts overall health care quality and the efficient allocation of resources. Government policies have…
Read more

Labor Supply Effects of Occupational Regulation: Evidence from the Nurse Licensure Compact

Christina DePasquale and Kevin Stange


June 2016

There is concern that licensure requirements impede mobility of licensed professionals to areas of high demand. Nursing has not been immune to this criticism, especially in the context of perceived…
Read more

Too Much License?

Edward Timmons, Brian Meehan, Andrew Meehan, and John Hazenstab

Archbridge Institute

April 10, 2018

This study provides an important contribution to the literature on U.S. absolute economic mobility and income inequality. The potential of occupational licensing to influence labor opportunities, economic mobility, and income…
Read more

How Declining Dynamism Affects Wages

Jay Shambaugh, Ryan Nunn, and Patrick Liu

The Brookings Institution

February 2018

Wage growth has stagnated in recent decades for a large share of workers. At the same time, declining rates of job change mean that workers are not accessing this historical…
Read more

Is Occupational Licensing a Barrier to Interstate Migration?

Janna E. Johnson and Morris M. Kleiner


December 2017

Occupational licensure, one of the most significant labor market regulations in the United States, may restrict the interstate movement of workers. We analyze the interstate migration of 22 licensed occupations….
Read more

The Effects of Occupational Licensing Evidence from Detailed Business-Level Data

Marek Zapletal

Center for Economic Studies, US Census Bureau

February 2017

Occupational licensing regulation has increased dramatically in importance over the last several decades, currently affecting more than one thousand occupations in the United States. I use confidential U.S. Census Bureau…
Read more

Guild-Ridden Labor Markets: The Curious Case of Occupational Licensing

Morris M. Kleiner

W.E. Upjohn Institute


This book provides a detailed, nontechnical overview of occupational licensing in the United States, China, the United Kingdom, and the European Union for students of the labor market, consumers, the…
Read more

Border Battles: The Influence of Occupational Licensing on Interstate Migration

Morris M. Kleiner

Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

October 2015

Based on the legal and economic issues presented, state licensing standards should allow individuals to move across state lines with minimal costs for retraining or residency requirements. When licensing is…
Read more

The ABCs of Regulation: The Effects of Occupational Licensing and Migration Among Teachers

Arbury, Chelsea; Bonilla, Gerardo; Durfee, Thomas; Johnson, Megan; Lehninger, Robin

University of Minnesota

January 17, 2015

This project examines the intersection of occupational licensing and migration in the teaching profession in the United States, with a focus on preschool teachers, K-12 teachers, and teaching assistants. We…
Read more

State Regulation and the Mobility of Nurses: An Examination of the Nurse Licensure Compact

Christina DePasquale and Kevin Stange

Association for Public Policy Analysis & Management

November 8, 2014

There is concern that state licensure requirements impede efficient mobility of licensed professionals to areas of high demand. Nursing has not been immune to this criticism, especially in light of…
Read more

The Impact of State Licensing Laws on Low-skilled Immigrants: The Case of Vietnamese Manicurists

Kathy J. Krynski and David E. Harrington

American Economic Review

May 2006

We present evidence that the natural gradient between Vietnamese manicurists and Vietnamese residents is suppressed in states with English proficiency requirements. Vietnamese who speak English poorly are especially likely to…
Read more

Doctors without Borders? Relicensing Requirements and Negative Selection in the Market for Physicians

Adriana D. Kugler and Robert M. Sauer

Journal of Labor Economics

July 2005

Relicensing requirements for professionals who move across borders are widespread. In this article, we measure the effects of occupational licensing by exploiting an immigrant physician retraining assignment rule. Instrumental variables…
Read more

Barriers to Labor Migration: The Case of Occupational Licensing

Morris M. Kleiner, Robert S. Gay, and Karen Greene

Industrial Relations

September 1982

This note measures the effect on migration patterns of current state occupational licensing. The alternative system against which the existing system is measured is one in which persons who are…
Read more

Occupational Licensing and the Interstate Mobility of Professionals

B. Peter Pashigian

The Journal of Law and Economics

April 1979

This paper will focus special attention on the legal profession. The legal profession is granted special consideration because the practice of law, unlike the practice of dentistry or medicine, may…
Read more

Effects of Professional Licensing Arrangements on Interstate Labor Mobility and Resource Allocation

Arlene S. Holen

Journal of Political Economy

October 1965

The licensing of various professions is generally accepted as necessary to protect the public from incompetent and dishonest practitioners. At the same time, however, licensing restricts freedom of entry and…
Read more

The State of Occupational Licensing: Research, State Policies and Trends


National Conference of State Legislators


State policymakers play an important role in setting licensure policy and are at the heart of many efforts to strike the right balance needed to protect consumers and promote economic…
Read more