reference library

/reference library
reference library2018-06-08T14:23:35-07:00

This website features a collection of links to outside resources, many of which were cited in The Captured Economy, for readers interested in learning more about regressive regulation.

To filter the reference library by topic, please use the links on a topic page or open this page on a full-size screen and use the provided menu.

Lack Of Access To Specialists Associated With Mortality And Preventable Hospitalizations Of Rural Medicare Beneficiaries

Kenton J. Johnston, Hefei Wen, and Karen E. Joynt Maddox

Health Affairs

December 2019

People living in rural areas have worse health outcomes than their urban counterparts do. Understanding what factors account for this could inform policy interventions for reducing rural-urban disparities in health….
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Producer prices in the legal services industry after the Great Recession

Joseph Valentine

Monthly Labor Review

November 2019

Following the 2008 financial crisis (which occurred during the Great Recession that began in December 2007), businesses and corporations experienced substantial difficulty in accessing credit required to maintain operations at…
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Waste in the US Health Care System: Estimated Costs and Potential for Savings

William H. Shrank, Teresa L. Rogstad, and Natasha Parekh

Journal of the American Medical Association

October 7, 2019

The United States spends more on health care than any other country, with costs approaching 18% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Prior studies estimated that approximately 30% of health…
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Why Are the Prices So Damn High?

Eric Helland and Alexander Tabarrok

Mercatus Center

May 22, 2019

Why are prices in some sectors increasing dramatically even as economy-wide technology and productivity improves? Education and healthcare are notable examples of sectors seemingly stricken by constantly rising prices. Educational…
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Relaxing Occupational Licensing Requirements: Analyzing Wages and Prices for a Medical Service

Morris M. Kleiner, Allison Marier, Kyoung Won Park, and Coady Wing

The Journal of Law and Economics

February 2014

Occupational licensing laws have been relaxed in a large number of U.S. states to give nurse practitioners the ability to perform more tasks without the supervision of medical doctors. We…
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PA Scope of Practice Laws

Barton Associates

Barton Associates

All PAs must practice with a collaborating physician; however, state laws dictate the extent of that relationship. This interactive guide provides an overview of PA scope of practice laws by…
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Health spending in OECD countries: obtaining value per dollar.

Gerard F. Anderson and Biance K. Frogner

Health Affairs

2018

In 2005 the United States spent $6,401 per capita on health care-more than double the per capita spending in the median Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. Between…
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Advanced Practice Registered Nurses

Department of Veteran Affairs

Department of Veteran Affairs

2015

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its medical regulations to permit full practice authority of three roles of VA advanced practice registered nurses (APRN) when they are acting…
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Reforming Health Care Workforce Regulation

Taskforce on Health Care Workforce Regulation

Pew Health Professions Commission

December 1995

” Pew Health Professions Commission endorses the need to reform the regulatory system, the general vision articulated by the Taskforce on the future of the system, and the invitation to…
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Assessing Scope of Practice in Health Care Delivery: Critical Questions in Assuring Public Access and Safety

Federation of State Medical Boards

Federation of State Medical Boards

2005

“The Federation of State Medical Boards (the Federation) is a national non-profit association whose membership includes all medical licensing and disciplinary boards in the United States, and the U.S. territories….
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When Regulations Block Access to Oral Health Care, Children at Risk Suffer

Jane Koppelman

Pew Charitable Trusts

August 20, 2018

This brief describes a range of state-based regulations or policies that either limit or prohibit dental hygienists from sealing children’s teeth at school, or create financial burdens that work against…
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How Medical Licensing Drives Up Health Care Prices

Brink Lindsey and Steven Teles

Pro-Market

November 8, 2017

The role of licensing in driving up healthcare costs has been almost completely ignored. The apparent explanation is that nobody can imagine that there is any alternative. The obvious complexity…
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State Scope of Practice Laws, Nurse-Midwifery Workforce, and Childbirth Procedures and Outcomes.

Tony Yang, Laura Attanasio, and Katy Kozhimannil

Women's Health Issues

June 2016

“Despite research indicating that health, cost, and quality of care outcomes in midwife-led maternity care are comparable with and in some case preferable to those for patients with physician-led care,…
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How States Use Occupational Licensing to Punish Student Loan Defaults

C. Jarrett Dieterle, Shoshana Weissmann, and Garrett Watson

R Street Institute

June 2018

In recent years, college graduates have found themselves increasingly saddled with student loan debt. Even worse, many of these graduates fall behind on that debt sometimes through no fault of…
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Professional certifications and occupational licenses: evidence from the Current Population Survey

Evan Cunningham

Bureau of Labor Statistics

June 2019

This article uses data from the Current Population Survey to analyze the role of professional certifications and occupational licenses in the U.S. labor market. It discusses the prevalence of these…
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Rural And Nonrural Primary Care Physician Practices Increasingly Rely On Nurse Practitioners

Hilary Barnes, Michael R. Richards, Matthew D. McHugh, and Grant Martsolf

Health Affairs

June 2018

The use of nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care is one way to address growing patient demand and improve care delivery. However, little is known about trends in NP presence…
Read more

Medicare Graduate Medical Education Funding is Not Addressing the Primary Care Shortage: We Need a Radically Different Approach

Bruce Steinwald, Paul Ginsburg, Caitlin, Brandt, Sobin Lee, and Kavita Patel

Brookings

December 2018

A growing body of evidence shows that areas with robust primary care systems tend to have better outcomes and lower per capita costs than areas that rely more on specialists….
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Wisconsin Occupational Licensing Study Legislative Report

Wisconsin Department of Safety and Professional Services

Wisconsin Occupational Licensing Study Legislative Report

December 2018

Wisconsin issues four different types of credentials, which are: licenses, certificates, registrations, and permits. All types collectively are commonly referred to as credentials. For the purposes of this report, the…
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Comments on Are Protective Labor Market Institutions at the Root of Unemployment? A Critical Review of the Evidence by David Howell, Dean Baker, Andrew Glyn, and John Schmitt

James J. Heckman

CEPR

2007

Howell, Baker, Glyn, and Schmitt (HBGS) challenge the consensus view (the “orthodox” view, as they call it) on the causes of European unemployment trends. Numerous papers in this literature examine…
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The Value of Cosmetology Licensing to the Health, Safety, and Economy of America

Nam D. Pham and Anil Sarda

ndp analytics

December 2014

The objective of this report is to detail the health, safety and economic contributions of the professional beauty industry and the critical role professional beauty licensing plays in protecting those…
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The Regressive Effects of Child-Care Regulations

Ryan Bourne

Regulation

Fall 2018

Child care in the United States is expensive, but its cost varies greatly by region. Data from Child Care Aware of America, a nonprofit that works in child-care policy, indicate…
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Professional Protectionists: The Gains From Free Trade in Highly Paid Professional Services

Dean Baker

CEPR

Publication date here

The term “free trade” has been grossly misused in trade debates. Free trade has generally meant removing barriers on trade in goods, the effect of which is to put downward…
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Nurses as Intermediaries in the Promotion of Community Health: Exploring Their Roles and Challenges

Stuart Butler and Carmen Diaz

Brookings Institution

September 21, 2017

An effective health care system needs to coordinate medical facilities with the behavioral and economic drivers in communities that are most related to good long-term health. Intermediaries can help this…
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Relationship Between State Policy and Anesthesia Provider Supply in Rural Communities

Grant R. Martsolf, Matthew Baird, Catherine C. Cohen, and Nirabh Koirala

Medical Care

May 2019

There is a significant geographic variation in anesthesia provider supply. Lower supply in rural communities raises concerns about access to procedures that require anesthesia in rural areas. State policies related…
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A brief history of pharmacist prescribing in the UK

Wasim Baqir, David Miller, and Graeme Richardson

European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy

September 8, 2012

Pharmacists have been prescribing in the UK since 2003, following the success of nurse prescribing. The review of prescribing, supply and administration of medicines (the second Crown Report) in 1999…
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Improving Efficiency in the Health-Care System: Removing Anticompetitive Barriers for Advanced Practice Registered Nurses and Physician Assistants

E. Kathleen Adams and Sara Markowitz

The Hamilton Project

June 2018

In an era characterized by high levels of U.S. health-care spending and inadequate health outcomes, it is vital for policymakers to explore opportunities for enhancing productivity. Important productivity gains could…
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Impact of Rural and Urban Hospital Closures on Inpatient Mortality

Kritee Gujral and Anirban Basu

NBER

August 2019

This paper examines the impact of California’s hospital closures occurring from 1995-2011 on adjusted inpatient mortality for time-sensitive conditions: sepsis, stroke, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute myocardial infarction…
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Access to Behavioral Health Care in Michigan

Corwin Rhyan, Ani Turner, Emily Ehrlich, and Christine Stanik

Publication name here

Publication date here

This study provides a comprehensive assessment of access to mental health and substance use disorder (SUD) treatment in Michigan. It identifies current challenges and provides a baseline against which progress…
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Review of State Professional and Occupational Licensure Board Requirements and Processes

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

June 11, 2018

BPOA worked in coordination with Saint Francis University’s Knee Center for the Study of Occupational Regulation (CSOR) to compile data on regional equivalent professional and occupational licensure. The report found…
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How Well Do Doctors Know Their Patients? Evidence from a Mandatory Access Prescription Drug Monitoring Program

Thomas C. Buchmueller, Colleen M. Carey, and Giacomo Meille

NBER

August 2019

Many opioid control policies target the prescribing behavior of health care providers. In this paper, we study the first comprehensive state-level policy requiring providers to access patients’ opioid history before…
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Quality of Primary Care Provided to Medicare Beneficiaries by Nurse Practitioners and Physicians

Peter Buerhaus, Jennfier Perloff, Sean Slarke, Monia O'Reilly-Jacob, Galina Zolotusky, and Catherine DesRoches.

Medical Care

June 2018

Beneficiaries attributed to PCNPs had lower hospital admissions, readmissions, inappropriate emergency department use, and low-value imaging for low back pain. Beneficiaries attributed to PCMDs were more likely than those attributed…
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Change in Site of Children’s Primary Care: A Longitudinal Population-Based Analysis

Richard C. Wasserman, Susan E. Varni, Matthew C. Hollander, and Valerie S. Harder

Analysis of Family Medicine

September 2019

PURPOSE Evidence that fewer children are being seen at family physician (FP) practices has not been confirmed using population-level data. This study examines the proportion of children seen at FP…
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Expanding Eligibility for Professional and Occupational Licensing for Immigrants

President's Immigration Alliance

September 2019

This report provides an overview of the need to expand professional, business, and commercial licenses (also known as “occupational licenses”) to various work-authorized immigrants. The report provides an overview of…
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Burnout and Scope of Practice in New Family Physicians

Amanda K. H. Weidner, Robert L. Phillips, Jr, Bo Fang, and Lars E. Peterson

Annals of Family Medicine

June 2018

Family physicians report some of the highest levels of burnout, but no published work has considered whether burnout is correlated with the broad scope of care that family physicians may…
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Second Chances: The Importance of Occupational Licensing Reform to Arkansas’s Criminal Justice Reform Initiatives

Stephen Slivinski and Thomas Snyder

Arkansas Center for Research in Economics

February 2019

Arkansas policy makers are aware of their state’s high criminal recidivism rates (the percentage of released prisoners that reoffend). The criminal justice reforms in Arkansas have also indicated that policy…
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Occupational Licensing and Immigrants

Hugh Cassidy and Tennecia Dacass

The Center for Growth and Oppurtunity

July 10, 2019

Occupational licensing laws create minimum standards that individuals must meet to work in a number of fields. These minimum standards usually include competency tests, hours of practice, application fees, and…
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Does Occupational Licensing Impact Access to Dental Care?

Brian Isom and Jacob M. Caldwell

Center for Growth and Oppurtunity

August 7, 2019

There is a need in the United States for greater access to dental and oral health services. As of 2018, over five thousand three hundred dental Health Professional Shortage Areas…
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Primary Care Physician Practice Styles and Patient Care: Evidence from Physician Exits in Medicare

Itzik Fadlon and Jessica N. Van Parys

NBER

September 2019

Primary care physicians (PCPs) provide frontline health care to patients in the U.S.; however, it is unclear how their practice styles affect patient care. In this paper, we estimate the…
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Nurse Practitioner Role Grows to More than 270,000

American Association of Nurse Practitioners

American Association of Nurse Practitioners

January 28, 2018

The American Association of Nurse Practitioners® (AANP) released both the new national nurse practitioner (NP) count and findings from its 2018 National Nurse Practitioner Sample Survey. As of January, a…
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Addressing the Nation’s Primary Care Shortage: Advanced Practice Clinicians and Innovative Care Delivery Models

United Health Group

September 2018

Nurse practitioners (NPs), physician assistants (PAs), and certified nurse midwives (CNMs) represent a growing part of the nation’s primary care workforce. These Advanced Practice Clinicians help expand primary care capacity…
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Why Do Some Occupations Pay More than Others? Social Closure and Earnings Inequality in the United States

Kim A. Weeden

American Journal of Sociology

July 2002

This article elaborates and evaluates the neo-Weberian notion of social closure to investigate positional inequality in the United States. It argues that social and legal barriers around occupations raise the…
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The New Closed Shop? The Economic and Structural Effects of Occupational Licensure

Beth Redbird

American Sociological Review

2017

During the past few decades, licensure, a state-enforced mechanism for regulating occupational entry, quickly became the most prevalent form of occupational closure. Broad consensus among researchers holds that licensure creates…
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Occupational Licensing and Accountant Quality: Evidence from the 150-Hour Rule

John Manuel Barrios

Becker-Friedman Institute for Research in Economics

May 2018

I examine the effects of mandatory occupational licensure on the quality of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) using the staggered state-level adoption of the 150-hour Rule (the Rule). Although the Rule…
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A Fair Chance

Hannah Putman and Kate Walsh

National Council on Teacher Quality

February 2019

In A Fair Chance: Simple steps to strengthen and diversify the teacher workforce, NCTQ analysis reveals both astonishingly high numbers of elementary teacher candidates failing their professional licensing tests each…
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A Welfare Analysis of Occupational Licensing in U.S. States

Morris M. Kleiner, Evan J. Soltas

NBER

October 2019

We assess the welfare consequences of occupational licensing for workers and consumers. We estimate a model of labor market equilibrium in which licensing restricts labor supply but also affects labor…
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Models of prescribing, scope of practice and medicines prescribed, a survey of nurse practitioners

Jacqueline Fong, Andrew Cashin, and Thomas Buckley

Journal of Advanced Nursing

June 8, 2020

The aim of this study was to explore current Australian Nurse Practitioners (NPs) models of prescribing used and medicines prescribed within their scopes of practice. An online survey of Australian…
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Differences and similarities in scope of practice between registered nurses and nurse specialists in emergency care: an interview study

Erika Boman, Rika Levy-Malmberg, Lisbeth Fagerström

Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences

October 2019

 

Wide variation exists between the nursing competence requirements seen in the emergency care context and the subsequent design of nursing education programmes. Clarifying nursing roles and scope of prac- tice…
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Options to Enhance Occupational License Portability

Economic Liberty Task Force

Federal Trade Commission

September 2018

Nearly 30 percent of American jobs require a license today, up from less than five percent in the 1950s. For some professions, occupational licensing is necessary to protect the public…
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A Study of Telecontraception

Tara Jain, Eleanor Schwarz, Ateev Mehrotra

The New England Journal of Medicine

September 2019

Telecontraception is the provision of contraception prescriptions online as an alternative to traditional clinic visits. In this study, standardized patients were asked to represent a range of relative and absolute…
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At What Cost? State and National Estimates of Occupational Licensing

Morris M. Kleiner and Evgeny S. Vorotnikov

Institute for Justice

November 2018

This study finds that roughly 19 percent of American workers now have a license to work, with individual state percentages ranging from about 14 to 27 percent. It also finds…
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Impact of Nurse Practitioner Practice Regulations on Rural Population Health Outcomes

Judith Ortiz, Richard Hofler, Angeline Bushy, Yi-ling Lin, Ahmad Khanijahani, and Andrea Bitney

NCBI

June 15, 2018

For decades, U.S. rural areas have experienced shortages of primary care providers. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are helping to reduce that shortage. However, NP scope of practice regulations vary from state-to-state…
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State Medical Boards Awareness Study

The Harris Poll

May 28, 2019

Our aim in conducting the State Medical Boards Awareness Study was to measure national awareness of state medical boards, as well as gain insights on Americans’ experiences with, and responses…
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Rural And Nonrural Primary Care Physician Practices Increasingly Rely On Nurse Practitioners

Hilary Barnes, Michael R. Richards, Matthew D. McHugh, and Grant Martsolf

Health Affairs

June 2018

The use of nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care is one way to address growing patient demand and improve care delivery. However, little is known about trends in NP presence…
Read more

Full Scope-of-Practice Regulation Is Associated With Higher Supply of Nurse Practitioners in Rural and Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Counties

Ying Xue, Viji Kannan, Elizabeth Greener, Joyce A. Smith, Judith Brasch, Brent A. Johnson, and Joanne Spetz

Journal of Nursing Regulation

January 2018

Access to quality primary care is challenging for rural populations and individuals residing in primary care health professional shortage areas (HPSAs). The ability of nurse practitioners (NPs) to provide full…
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The Economic Burden and Practice Restrictions Associated With Collaborative Practice Agreements: A National Survey of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses

Brendan Martin and Maryann Alexander

Journal of Nursing Regulation

January 2019

The U.S. healthcare system is facing workforce shortages in rural and primary care settings. Despite growing demand for providers and comparable quality metrics, advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) still face…
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Occupational Licensing Reform Across the United States

Marc Kilmer

Arkansas Center for Research in Economics

October 2018

Political leadership from the governor was one of the strongest factors influencing whether or not licensing was reformed. Governors accomplished this in a myriad of ways. Both Michigan Governor Rick…
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Eight Market-Oriented Proposals That Reduce Income Inequality

Dean Baker

American Enterprise Institute

January 24, 2017

Debates over economic policy are often framed as conservatives supporting market-oriented policies, while progressives support government interventions. However, there are many market-oriented policies that can lead to more equality, an…
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Changes in Preparation and Practice Patterns Among New Family Physicians

Amanda K. H. Weidner and Frederick M. Chen

Annals of Family Medicine

November 1, 2018

Family physicians’ scope of practice is declining despite being well prepared to provide a range of clinical services. To evaluate whether this is a new phenomenon, we compared the proportions…
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Reforming America’s Healthcare System Through Choice and Competition

Department of Health and Human Services

December 2018

Reduced competition among clinicians leads to higher prices for health care services, reduces choice, and negatively impacts overall health care quality and the efficient allocation of resources. Government policies have…
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Cross-Sectional Analysis of the 1039 U.S. Physicians Reported to the National Practitioner Data Bank for Sexual Misconduct, 2003–2013

Azza AbuDagga, Sidney M. Wolfe, Michael Carome, and Robert E. Oshel

PLOS One

February 3, 2016

Little information exists on U.S. physicians who have been disciplined with licensure or restriction-of-clinical-privileges actions or have had malpractice payments because of sexual misconduct. Our objectives were to: (1) determine…
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Nurse practitioners: A solution to America’s primary care crisis

Peter Buerhaus

American Enterprise Institute

September 18, 2018

For the past few decades, the United States has not produced enough primary care physicians. Moreover, too few physicians practice in rural and medically underserved areas, and the number of…
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Impact of State Scope of Practice Laws and Other Factors on the Practice and Supply of Primary Care Nurse Practitioners

Westat

Westat

November 16, 2015

“This project explored the effects of nurse practitioner (NP) scope of practice (SOP) legislation on the distribution and practice patterns of NPs as well as their billing practices. The goal…
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Nurse practitioner independence, health care utilization, and health outcomes.

Jeff Tracznski and Victoria M. Udalova

Journal of Health Economics

March 2018

Many states allow nurse practitioners (NPs) to practice and prescribe drugs without physician oversight, increasing the number of autonomous primary care providers. We estimate the causal impact of NP independence…
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How does provider supply and regulation influence health care markets? Evidence from nurse practitioners and physician assistants.

Kevin M. Stange

Journal of Health Economics

January 2014

Nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) now outnumber family practice doctors in the United States and are the principal providers of primary care to many communities. Recent growth of…
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The effects of state-level scope-of-practice regulations on the number and growth of nurse practitioners.

Patricia B. Reagan and Pamela Salsberry

Nursing Outlook

December 2013

It is widely recognized that there is significant state-level variation in scope-of-practice regulations (SSoPRs) for nurse practitioners (NPs). This study was designed to examine whether SSoPRs influence labor markets for…
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State-Granted Practice Authority: Do Nurse Practitioners Vote with their Feet?

John J. Perry

Nursing Research and Practice

November 2012

Nurse practitioners have become an increasingly important part of the US medical workforce as they have gained greater practice authority through state-level regulatory changes. This study investigates one labor market…
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The proportion, conditions, and predictors of emergency department visits that can be potentially managed by pharmacists with expanded scope of practice

Mhd Wasem Alsabbagh and Sherilyn K.D. Houle

Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy

December 7, 2018

Pharmacists have been shown to be beneficial for inclusion in emergency department (ED) services; however, little has been done to assess these benefits with pharmacists having even wider scopes of…
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The Rise and Impact of Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants on their own and Cross-Occupation Incomes

John J. Perry

Contemporary Economic Policy

October 23, 2018

There has been a dramatic increase in the authority granted to nurse practitioners (NP) and physician assistants (PA). This “expanded” authority has changed who can provide health‐care services and has…
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Professional Certifications and Occupational Licenses: Evidence from the Current Population Survey

Bureau Of Labor Statistics

Monthly Labor Review

June 2019

This article uses data from the Current Population Survey to analyze the role of professional certifications and occupational licenses in the U.S. labor market. It discusses the prevalence of these…
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Impact of nurse practitioners on health outcomes of Medicare and Medicaid patients.

GM Oliver, L Pennington, S Revella, M Rantz

Nursing Outlook

December 2014

Strengthening health care overall is essential to the health of our nation and promoting access to health care as well as controlling health care costs in a quality cost-effective manner….
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States With The Least Restrictive Regulations Experienced The Largest Increase In Patients Seen By Nurse Practitioners

Yong-Fang Kuo, Figaro L. Loresto Jr., Linda R. Rounds, and James S. Goodwin

Health Affairs

July 2013

“The use of nurse practitioners (NPs) is one way to address the shortage of physician primary care providers. NP training programs and the number of practicing NPs have increased in…
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Community health centers employ diverse staffing patterns, which can provide productivity lessons for medical practices.

Leighton Ku, Bianca K. Frogner, Erika Steinmetz, and Patricia Pittman

Health Affairs

January 2015

Community health centers are at the forefront of ambulatory care practices in their use of nonphysician clinicians and team-based primary care. We examined medical staffing patterns, the contributions of different…
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Relaxing occupational licensing requirements: Analyzing wages and prices for a medical service

Morris M. Kleiner, Allison Marier, Kyoung Won Park, and Coady Wing

Journal of Law and Economics

May 2016

Occupational licensing laws have been relaxed in a large number of US states to give nurse practitioners the ability to perform more tasks without the super-vision of medical doctors. We…
Read more

Diagnostic Imaging Examinations Interpreted by Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants: A National and State-Level Medicare Claims Analysis

American Journal of Roentgenology

September 2019

Nonphysician providers (NPPs) increasingly perform imaging-guided procedures, but their roles interpreting imaging have received little attention. We characterize diagnostic imaging services rendered by NPPs (i.e., nurse practitioners and physician assistants)…
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The Effect of State Laws on the Supply of Advanced Practice Nurses

David E. Kalist and Stephen J. Spurr

International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics

December 2004

This paper considers how the decision to enter advanced practice nursing (e.g., the occupations of nurse practitioner, certified nurse-midwife, nurse anesthetist, and clinical nurse specialist) is affected by State laws…
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How Much of Barrier to Entry is Occupational Licensing?

Peter Q. Blair and Bobby W. Chung

NBER

November 2018

We exploit state variation in licensing laws to study the effect of licensing on occupational choice using a boundary discontinuity design. We find that licensing reduces equilibrium labor supply by…
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Role of Geography and Nurse Practitioner Scope-of-Practice in Efforts to Expand Primary Care System Capacity: Health Reform and the Primary Care Workforce.

JA Graves, P Mishra, RS Dittus, R Parikh, J Perloff, PI

Medical Care

January 2016

“Little is known about the geographic distribution of the overall primary care workforce that includes both physician and nonphysician clinicians–particularly in areas with restrictive nurse practitioner scope-of-practice laws and where…
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The Impact of Establishing a Full Scope of Practice for Nurse Practitioners in Michigan

Grant R. Martsolf and Ryan Kandrack

Rand Corporation

2016

“Policymakers and clinicians are concerned that future growth in demand for health care services will exceed current provider supply. One potential solution to meeting this demand is expanding the number…
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Life, Liberty, and Trade Secrets: Intellectual Property in the Criminal Justice System

Rebecca Wexler

Stanford Law Review

February 2017

The criminal justice system is becoming automated. At every stage, from policing to evidence to parole, machine learning and other computer systems guide outcomes. Widespread debates over the pros and…
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Full Scope-of-Practice Regulation Is Associated With Higher Supply of Nurse Practitioners in Rural and Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Counties

Yue Ying, Viji Kannan, Elizabeth Greener, Joyce Smith, Judith Brasch, Brent Johnson, Joanne Spetz

Journal of Nursing Regulation

January 2018

“Access to quality primary care is challenging for rural populations and individuals residing in primary care health professional shortage areas (HPSAs). The ability of nurse practitioners (NPs) to provide full…
Read more

The effects of expanded nurse practitioner and physician assistant scope of practice on the cost of Medicaid patient care.

Edward J. Timmons

Journal of Health Economics

2017

The provision of health care to low-income Americans remains an ongoing policy challenge. In this paper, I examine how important changes to occupational licensing laws for nurse practitioners and physician…
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How does provider supply and regulation influence health care markets? Evidence from nurse practitioners and physician assistants.

Kevin Strange

Journal of Health Economics

2014

Nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) now outnumber family practice doctors in the United States and are the principal providers of primary care to many communities. Recent growth of…
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U.S. Health Care from a Global Perspective

David Squires

The Commonwealth Fund

October 8, 2015

This analysis draws upon data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and other cross-national analyses to compare health care spending, supply, utilization, prices, and health outcomes across 13…
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Use of Midlevel Practitioners to Achieve Labor Cost Savings in the Primary Care Practice of an MCO

Douglas W Roblin, David H Howard, Edmund R Becker, E Kathleen Adams, and Melissa H Roberts

Health Services Research

June 2004

The summary goes here Douglas W Roblin, David H Howard, Edmund R Becker, E Kathleen Adams, and Melissa H Roberts Health Services Research June 2004 External Link

Association of State-Level Restrictions in Nurse Practitioner Scope of Practice With the Quality of Primary Care Provided to Medicare Beneficiaries

Jennifer Perloff, Sean Clarke, Catherine M. DesRoches, Monica O’Reilly-Jacob, and Peter Buerhaus

Medical Care Research and Review

September 2017

State scope of practice (SoP) laws impose significant restrictions on the services that a nurse practitioner (NP) may provide in some states, yet evidence about SoP limitations on the quality…
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The Extraregulatory Effect of Nurse Practitioner Scope-of-Practice Laws on Physician Malpractice Rates

Benjamin J. McMichael, Barbara J. Safriet, and Peter I. Buerhaus

Medical Care Research and Review

January 2017

Patients can hold physicians directly or vicariously liable for the malpractice of nurse practitioners under their supervision. Restrictive scope-of-practice laws governing nurse practitioners can ease patients’ legal burdens in establishing…
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Occupational Licensing and the Limits of Public Choice Theory

Ryan Nunn and Gabriel Scheffler

Administrative Law Review Accord

April 2019

Public choice theory has long been the dominant lens through which economists and other scholars have viewed occupational licensing. According to the public choice account, practitioners favor licensing because they…
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The Impact of Occupational Licensing Requirements in D.C.

Yesim Sayin Taylor

D.C. Policy Center

November 12, 2019

The District of Columbia has many factors in its favor making it attractive to workers: high average wages, a variety of employer benefits, strong worker protections, and relatively short commute…
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Beyond Physicians: The Effect of Licensing and Liability Laws on the Supply of Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants

Benjamin J. McMichael

Mercatus Center

July 2017

The increased use of nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) represents an important option for increasing access to healthcare. I explore the effect of two types of laws on…
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Competitive Effects of Scope of Practice Restrictions: Public Health or Public Harm?

Sara Markowitz, E. Kathleen Adams, Mary Jane Lewitt, and Anne Dunlop

Journal of Health Economics

October 2016

The demand for health care and healthcare professionals is predicted to grow significantly over the next decade. Securing an adequate health care workforce is of primary importance to ensure the…
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Higher fees paid to US physicians drive higher spending for physician services compared to other countries.

Miriam Laugesen and Sherry Glied

Health Affairs

September 2011

Higher health care prices in the United States are a key reason that the nation’s health spending is so much higher than that of other countries. Our study compared physicians’…
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How Does Occupational Licensing Affect U.S. Consumers and Workers?

Josh T. Smith, Vidalia Freeman, and Jacob M. Caldwell

Center for Growth and Opportunity

December 2018

This paper examines the existing research on the effects of occupational licensing and concludes with a discussion of possible reforms. Existing studies have yet to find a definitive link between…
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Consumer Perceptions of Financial Advisory Titles and Implications for Title Regulation

Derek T. Tharp

Mercatus Center

September 2019

Many professionals in the financial services industry refer to themselves as financial advisers despite tremendous variation in business practices, compensation methods, and duties to act in the best interest of…
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Policy Perspectives: Competition and the Regulation of Advanced Practice Nurses

Federal Trade Commission

March 2014

This policy paper builds on FTC staff competition advocacy comments that focus on proposed state-level changes to statutes and rules governing the “scope of practice” of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses…
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The Regulation of Occupations

Alex Bryson and Morris M. Kleiner

British Journal Industrial Relations

July 2010

The issue of occupational regulation has been of academic interest from Adam Smith to Milton Friedman (Friedman 1962; Smith 1937). In Western democracies, the number of workers who are required…
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Health Care Spending in the United States Compared With 10 Other High-Income Countries

Howard Bauchner and Phil B. Fontanarosa

Journal of the American Medical Association

2018

In this issue of JAMA, Papanicolas and colleagues compared health care spending in the United States with health care spending in a select group of 10 of the highest-income countries…
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Job Market Signaling through Occupational Licensing

Peter Q. Blair and Bobby W. Chung

NBER

July 2018

A large literature demonstrates that occupational licensing is a labor market friction that distorts labor supply allocation and prices. We show that an occupational license serves as a job market…
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Untangling Hair Braider Deregulation in Virginia

Edward J. Timmons and Catherine Konieczny

Cato Journal

Fall 2018

We estimate the effects of removing the license requirement for hair braiding in Virginia in 2012. Using County Business Patterns and Nonemployer Statistics data from 2004 through 2014, we find…
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Dispelling Three Myths About Occupational Licensing

Jared Meyer and Victoria Eardley

Foundation for Government Accountability

October 15, 2018

Myth: All licensing is necessary to protect public safety. Proponents often argue that the dramatic growth in occupational licensing is necessary to ensure consumer safety. However, the body of available…
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Knocking on Parents’ Doors: Regulation and Intergenerational Mobility

Sauro Mocetti, Giacomo Roma, and Enrico Rubolino

Bank of Italy

July 2018

The paper looks at whether the propensity of young people to follow the same career path as one of their parents is driven by privileges of position arising from regulation…
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